What is Operation System : A Complete Introduction

Computer networks require software such as operating systems in order to work optimally. The system is combined with hardware so that the computer can work as needed. Then actually, what is operation system?

The operating system or often abbreviated as OS is a very important component on a computer. Without the operating system, the computer device will not be able to carry out certain operations or commands.

It can be said that the operating system is the lifeblood of a computer. The existence of this operating system helps the computer to manage all the resources on the computer.

Definition of What is Operation System

what is operation system

The general definition of an operating system is a software system that is able to manage software and hardware resources so that they can run properly and facilitate the process of interaction with users or users (brainware).

Computer and operating system are two entities that are interconnected and inseparable. Without an operating system, the computer device will not be able to work to fulfill certain commands.

According to Wikipedia, the operating system is software that regulates the system and manages resources on the computer, both from other software and hardware to run programs and applications on the computer.

From the definition of what is an operation system above, we can conclude that the operating system is essentially software that has the task of regulating and controlling the operation of a device. Be it computer networks, smartphones and others.

This operating system is the core of all software. Thus, other software does not need to perform core tasks because it is run by the operating system itself. Then other devices can be run after the operating system is running.

History of Operating System Development

Operating systems have a long history of development. Therefore, in this section we will discuss the early history of the creation of an operating system that can support the process of computer equipment in a systematic and structured manner.

First Generation Operating System (1945-1955)

The first generation operating system is the oldest and simplest operating system. In this first generation, is the beginning of the creation of an electronic computing device that can replace the role of mechanical computing systems.

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This is because the speed of humans in calculating and remembering information is very limited so that they often make mistakes. Therefore, in this generation, a computer system is formed that is given orders or instructions to be able to work directly on any given task quickly and precisely.

Second Generation (1955-1965)

In the second generation, the development of the operating system became more advanced. At this stage, a new idea has been developed which is named Batch Processing System. This idea allows work to be carried out in real-time in a sequential sequence.

Although already using more advanced ideas, this generation has not used a special operating system. In the development process, it still uses the functions of the operating system called IBSYS and FMS.

Third Generation of Operating Systems (1965-1980)

In the next generation, the development of the operating system is becoming increasingly rapid. At this stage the development is already quite advanced. Even the operating system is used for the needs of many users at once by communicating online.

This very rapid development certainly has a number of advantages for the use of technology in a number of sectors. So it really supports multi-user and multi-programming processes (many programs at once).

The Development of the Fourth Generation (1980 – Present)

In the development of the fourth generation operating system, the operating system has progressed very rapidly. The features and functionality provided by the operating system are far more complex than the previous era.

At this stage, the GUI (Graphical User Interface) becomes the main advantage to provide a better experience with an easier interaction process. So that more and more people can use computers for various purposes.

Important Functions of Operating System

operating system function

After knowing in detail about what is operation system, you also need to know the functions that the software has. In addition to having certain tasks, the operating system also has certain functions that are very important.

In general, there are 4 main functions owned by the operating system. The following are some of the main functions of the operating system on computer network devices.

Managing Hardware Work

Computers generally consist of software and hardware. The function of the operating system also applies to hardware which is hardware that completes the computer’s work operations. The hardware in question includes CPU, mouse, speakers, and so on.

This operating system has the task of managing hardware work and connecting hardware and software so that the computer can run properly. In fact, the OS is set to be the starter connecting other applications with the hardware.

Managing Various Applications

When installing an application, it will generally be stored in the storage memory. Later, all these applications will be integrated with the operating system used. So, if there is no operating system on the computer, of course you cannot run these application programs.

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So the role of the operating system is so vital on computer devices. Without the operating system, the computer will not be able to run. So that the work functions assigned to it will not be executed.

As Coordinator of Computer Equipment

Another function that is also owned by the operating system is to coordinate many things on the computer related to the preparation of complex programs to be more systematic, simpler, and sequential.

Thus, this operating system can be said to provide significant advantages by helping the user’s work become more practical and efficient. The existence of an operating system on a computer will make each device work as it should.

Maximizing Computer Functions

The next important function of using the operating system is related to the optimization of computer functions. The operating system will optimize the work of software and computer hardware so that they can run according to their functions and run optimally.

Some devices require different treatment, such as the CPU that takes time to run, which makes calls to files stored on the hard disk. So that the performance of the device becomes more effective and efficient when used.

Types of Operating Systems on Computers

what is operation system in Windows computer

After discussing what is an operating system, it is also important to know some types of operating systems that are often used. For your information, here are some types of operating systems based on how they work.

Batch OS

The first type of operating system you need to know about is Batch OS. Batch OS type is a type of operating system that can unify several jobs, so that it becomes faster to complete and is not too heavy for implementation.

This operating system unifies several jobs, making it more efficient and completed faster and less burdensome implementation.

Distributed OS

The next type of operating system is a distributed OS. This type of operating system uses several processors on various machines to facilitate computing which will be given to the user quickly with precise accuracy.

Mobile OS

The next type of operating system is Mobile OS. This operating system is an operating system designed specifically for the needs of mobile devices. As the name implies, the platform is an OS made specifically for the needs of applications on mobile devices.

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Examples of mobile OS systems that are quite popular are Android and iOS. Both are operating systems that are specifically used to run today’s sophisticated smartphone devices.

Multitasking OS

Multitasking OS is a type of operating system that needs to be known next. This operating system multitasking system can be used to complete work simultaneously in one CPU device so that the task can be done faster.

Network OS

The next type of OS is Network OS. In using the network, the OS also acts as a data manager, security, user, and function of the networking itself.

Real-Time OS

Real-time OS is an operating system that has less processing timeout intervals with a small input response, so access is faster. This fast process makes Real-Time OS a much-loved software for completing a number of tasks or programs in a short time.

Examples of Operating Systems on Computer Devices

Windows Operating System

After reading about what is operation system, you also need to know an example of an operating system that is commonly used on computers. For information, here are some operating systems that you need to know and often use on computer devices.

DOS Operating System

DOS is one of the earliest types of computer operating systems developed. This system was developed by the Microsoft company and is often known as the ancestor of the OS system.

DOS, which stands for Disk Operating System, was the earliest operating system used on IBM computers. This operating system is not interface-based as it is now. So the programming command must use writing first or commonly known as the Command Prompt.

In appearance, this OS is almost the same as ancient computers. The MS-DOS display is still black and white, there are no pictures and it still looks like text. As an improvement, Microsoft has developed this MS-DOS version up to 8 times.

However, the development of this operating system was discontinued in 2000. The reason is, the number of enthusiasts and users of this DOS system tends to decrease and is less popular when compared to other operating systems.

Windows Operating System

After the development of MS DOS stopped, Microsoft also developed a new operating system known as Windows. At the beginning of its appearance, Windows has used the interface and is installed on almost all IBM computers and other computers.

Therefore, Windows is the most widely used operating system in the world. An attractive GUI display and easy use, make the Windows operating system increasingly popular and used on many computer devices.

In its development, Windows was made into several operating systems, namely Stand Alone and Network. The launch of the first Windows operating system was the Windows 1.0 version in 1983.

Until now, Windows has launched the latest operating system called Windows 11. However, Windows 11 only supports devices with certain latest specifications.

In its development, Windows 10 has become one of the most popular and widely used versions of the OS on computers. The user experience and GUI display are so attractive, making Windows 10 the prima donna of computer users.

Mac OS Operating System

The next operating system to know is Mac OS. This system stands for Macintosh Operating System. Mac OS is an operating system that can be said to be the most exclusive of other OS and is only found on one computer brand, namely Apple.

In 1984, Mac OS was launched and was first used for LISA computers. Mac OS is the result of the development of the basic Linux operating system. As the most exclusive OS, you cannot use this operating system on devices other than those made by Apple.

In its development, Mac OS was finally changed to use the latest version, namely Mac OS X. The operating system named Mac OS X is the tenth version which is the result of the development of the Mac OS 9 version.

Mac OS X itself began to be introduced to the public since 2001 ago. Mac OS offers a number of advantages for users. Starting from better multi-tasking capabilities to a higher level of security when compared to other operating systems.

Linux OS

Linux operating system

Linux is one of the opensource operating systems that is already quite popular among the world community. Although it has a popularity value under Windows and Mac OS, the number of users of this operating system is quite large.

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Its opensource nature makes users free to develop the operating system. Even so, Linux can still be successful when juxtaposed with other systems. Even since the beginning of its release, the Linux OS has used a graphical basis, interface, and can be text-based.

Until now, there are quite a lot of Linux distributions that users can choose from. Some that are quite popular include Debian, Fedora, Ubuntu, CentOS, and so on. Each Linux distribution offers a different interface and usage.

UNIX Operating System

The next example of a computer operating system is UNIX. This operating system was created by the companies AT&T, General Electric, and MIT in 1965 for DARPA. Unix is ​​the only operating system that can be used on a variety of computers, including mini computers.

Unix is ​​a type of network operating system that can be used as a server or workstation. This OS is open source so it can be obtained for free. This system is being used less and less because it is out of prestige with other OS such as Windows, Mac, and Linux.


So it can be concluded that the operating system is software that is used to manage the resources of the software and hardware in order to collaborate in carrying out certain instructions.

The operating system is an important part of a computer device. Without an operating system, the computer device will not be able to function. So that the computer can not run the commands that are assigned to it.

That is a complete discussion of what is operation system that you need to know. In this article, we have discussed the definition of an operating system, its types, functions, and examples. So you can have a more complete understanding of the computer operating system.

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